Difference between innate and adaptive immunity
innate vs adaptive immunity:
The human body though seemingly solid and hardy, is in fact, a vulnerable piece of machinery in which goes on countless functions and processes which help conduct all sorts of tasks, even the simplest sort of a task such as lifting a finger or batting an eyelid. This clockwork on which our body runs can be disturbed by the slightest of abnormalities that occur from time to time which are better known as diseases. And yet, the body has also invented a certain mechanisms to ward off these abnormalities which is called the immunity system and which divides in to two sections such as innate immunity and adaptive immunity.
What is adaptive immunity?
Also known as acquired immunity and specific immunity, adaptive immunity refers to instances when a person will not be affected by a certain microorganism because of the fact that this specific individual has been infected by that microorganism before. It involves an immune response because of the fact that the body has adapted or gotten used to that specific microorganism in which the body’s memory cells plays a rather significant part. And thus, with an increased sense of immunity, the body releases lymphocytes which are antibodies that will create an antigen-antibody reaction, resulting in the body’s resistance to certain microorganisms.
What is innate immunity?
The word “innate” itself depicts the true meaning of the term ‘innate immunity. It is the kind of immunity that is inherent to an individual and which is also present from birth itself. It has a more general purpose of preventing generic microorganisms from entering the blood stream by attacking them and thus, it has earned the name ‘non specific immunity’ as a result. Some examples for innate immunity could be listed as the skin which prevents microorganisms from entering the body at the very surface, coughing, sneezing and even body secretions which contain lysozymes which are naturally equipped to ward off any unwanted visitors.
What is the difference between innate immunity and adaptive immunity?
Innate immunity is more of a general sort of immunity where generic microorganisms are prevented from entering the system whereas adaptive immunity is more of a specific kind of immunity where it reacts to specific kinds of immunity as a result of memory cells which reminds the body that it has been affected by this specific microorganism before and therefore reacts by releasing antibodies called lymphocytes which in turn will help prevent the microorganism from creating harm. Also, whereas innate immunity does not involve any sort of immunological memories, adaptive immunity involves immunological memories according to which the body reacts.
While innate immunity is the kind of immunity is inherent to a person and exists from one’s birth itself, adaptive immunity is the kind of immunity which one acquires. This is done so by aid of the memory cells of the body which help the system remember that a certain microorganism is harmful to the body.
Also, innate immunity triggers immediate response whereas adaptive immunity takes time between infection, exposure and response as the immunological memories take some time to process in the memory cells and the T cells. Therefore, adaptive immunity is a slower, more lagging sort of a response of a body than innate immunity which works almost as a reflex.