Difference between agriculture and horticulture
agriculture vs horticulture :
For most people out there, agriculture and horticulture could mean one thing or the other. Agriculture is the more popular and the widely known term and most people are of the opinion that horticulture is yet another sophisticated term for agriculture and often make the mistake of using the two terms synonymously. Therefore, it is wise to know what these terms mean individually prior to moving on to the factors which set them apart.
What is agriculture?
Derived out of a mixture of Latin words agri which means field and cultura which means culture, the term agriculture refers to the production of food and goods through farming and forestry. Agriculture is known as the key aspect which contributed towards the development of civilization as this eventually led to the creation of a network of food supply which were thus cultivated with the aim of feeding the population.
Agriculture was the chief occupation of man until the industrial revolution which introduced machinery and other aspects out of which a man can earn his living. It waws once again with the green revolution in the 20th century that agricukture turned over a new leaf. Not only food, but raw material, fuel and fiber too are produced in the process of agriculture. And yet, because of the mono cropping or the mono culture which is often practiced in agriculture, less bio diversity is being observed today.
What is horticulture?
Derived out of a mixture of latin words hortus which means garden and cultura which means cultivation, horticulture refers to the industry and science of plant cultivation. Horticulture is done in a methodical way in small scale enclosed plots using special techniques such as plant propagation, breeding of plants, production of crops, plant physiology as well as biochemistry and genetic engineering. Extensive research and work is done regarding these areas and also in treating diseases in the crops, dealing with pests and also, methods improving the quality of the crops, etc. horticulture mainly deals with fruits, berries, nuts, vegetables, flowers, trees, shrubs, and turf and it promotes ecological succession and biodiversity as well.
What is the difference between horticulture and agriculture?
while agriculture and horticulture are terms which go hand in hand and are often quite confusing to differenciate, agriculture refers to the cultivation of fields whereas horticulture is done in small scale plots. Also, while agriculture does not involve any form of scientific experimentation, research or methods, horticulture thrives in these techniques and is often performing more and more research on those fields with the aim of providing better solutions for problems encountered in cultivation.
Another factor is, agriculture involves not only food, but raw material, fuel and fiber as well. And yet, horticulture, concentrates mainly in the cultivation of food crops and develops the means in which the quality of the crops can be improved.
Also, while agriculture concentrates solely on providing for the needs of the growing population and therefore tends to mono crop and reduce the bio diversity, horticulture promotes bio diversity and ecological succession. Therefore, while agriculture remains to be one of the oldest methods and the earliest sign of civilization, horticulture is a recently introduced cultivating method that includes science in its mission as well.