Difference between active and passive immunity
Active immunity vs passive immunity:
People all over the world are now being made aware of the very real dangers of being exposed to the many disease causing viruses and other microorganisms which are capable of affecting the whole of the human kind in disastrous ways. The human body in itself is very much capable of responding to these disease causing microorganisms by way of its immunity system which enables the body to identify and respond to these harmful components effectively. The body’s response to these harmful microorganisms can be categorized in to two types as active immunity and passive immunity.
What is active immunity?
Active immunity requires a healthy immunity system in order to develop the antibodies which act as antagonists towards disease causing pathogens. The immunity will thus be activated while some of the initial protective cells that have been formed as a result of the initial exposure to the organism would transform themselves in to memory cells which would in turn store the details of the pathogen so that they could get reactivated if the system gets affected by that particular microorganism again. Active immunity is again divided in to two categories as natural active immunity and artificial active immunity. If a person is fully affected with the infection carried along by the organism once and if he or she is later on rendered as immune against that particular organism, it is referred to as natural immunity. Artificial immunity is when the organism is introduced to the patient through attenuation along with other components that activate the immune response of the body.
What is passive immunity?
Passive immunity is only helpful for a short duration as one does not require an active and healthy immune system to benefit from passive immunity. Passive immunity too is divided in to two parts such as natural passive immunity and artificial passive immunity. When the maternal Ig G type antibodies is passed to the foetus through the placenta, it is referred to as natural immunity whereas when immunoglobulin or pre formed animal based antibodies are introduced to a non immune person can be referred to as artificial immunity. Natural immunity is an essential process which is of extreme use during the initial 6 months of the infant’s life when the immune system is still developing.
What is the difference between passive immunity and active immunity?
Passive and active immunity are two aspects which are absolutely crucial for the human body in order to maintain its health. These two types complement each other and work together in fighting off harmful pathogens by the creation of antibodies which trigger off a series of responses to the foreign microorganism. However, the difference between active and passive immunity is the fact that while active immunity requires a healthy and active immune system, passive immunity does not require such a factor in order to function. In fact, passive immunity exists even in infants who are still in the process of developing their immune systems, people with compromised immune systems and even healthy people who require an immunity boost until the immune system responds. Another difference between the two immunities would be the fact that while active immunity needs a lag time to act and create antibodies, passive immunity activates itself from the very start. Furthermore, active immunity initiates its series of activities with antigens whereas passive immunity starts off with antibodies. However, the immunity that is activated through active immunity is much more long lasting than that of passive immunity.
In addition to all this, active immunity is known to create specific antibodies which are capable of providing a custom made reaction to that specific serotype or serovar. The antibodies that are created from passive immunity on the other hand are more general in nature as they are originated externally.
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